At times of economic transitions of an austerity nature, such as structural adjustment programs, social protection programs become more crucial. They are the wall protecting the groups more likely to be harmed by such measures. In late 2016, Egypt adopted an austerity package dictated by the IMF. It led to severe social consequences affecting large sectors of Egyptian society, most notably the rise in poverty rates. Research on income, expenditure, and conducted by CAPMAS every two years shows an increase in poverty rates from 27.8% in 2015 to 32.5% in 2017/2018, followed by a slight decrease in 2019-2020 to 29.7%. Thus, more than a third of the population is considered poor (CAPMAS, 2020).

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