The present policy brief examines the devastating impact of the war on Gaza on the water, food and energy sectors across the Gaza Strip, the West Bank and southern Lebanon, highlighting the importance of safeguarding access to essential services in accordance with international humanitarian law and refraining from using them as tools of war. The ongoing conflict in Gaza has exacerbated an already dire humanitarian situation, compounded by 16 years of blockade and recurring military escalations. Since the outbreak of the war, essential services have been severely disrupted by deliberate attacks on civilian infrastructure, specifically agriculture, energy, water and sanitation systems, coupled with a ban by Israel on the entry of essential goods, including food, drinking water and fuel. This has resulted in a dire humanitarian crisis and widespread suffering. Gaza residents are forced to rely on unsafe water sources, face soaring food prices and shortages, and endure the effects of fuel and energy scarcity, impacting multiple industries and services.

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